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Design-based research in science education: One step towards methodology. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 2 2 , 54— Koehler, M. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 1 , 60— McCrory, R. Morais, C. Moreira, a. Extra figura 1 , 1—5. Niess, M. IGI Global. Osborne, J.
Literature review in science education and the role of ICT: Promise, problems and future directions. Pow, J. Rogers, L. A pedagogical framework for developing innovative science teachers with ICT. Schmidt, D. Swan, K. A collaborative, design-based approach to improving an online program. Internet and Higher Education, 21, 74— Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16 3 , — Vieira, R.
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Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence on teaching and learning in higher education
Webb, M. The independent-samples t-test showed that students perceived significantly better in classroom with free Internet access and digital devices used in every class, which indicated students gained better learning experience in classroom with digital devices and free Internet access. Digital devices and Internet access were the basis for conducting high order cognitive learning activities for digital native.
In fact, 10, This result confirmed the conclusion by Yang et al. It was suggested the baseline for the mean score of environment factor should be 3. For presentation, the mean score was 3.
The Emerging Pedagogy for 21st Century Learning - IE Inc
In the design of smart classroom, presentation could be enhanced by dual-large screen, high resolution, wireless display for students, and etc. All in all, it was apparent that the resource and enhancement were the two factors with the lowest satisfaction from digital native students. It was suggested that digital device equipped for every students and high speed internet should be considered as the basic infrastructure for smart classroom. Digital resources should be provided to both teachers and students, and the resources should be abundant and associated with each specific learning objective for the specific class.
Hardware or software should be equipped in classroom to facilitate the sharing of learning materials and learning outcomes for digital native students. Physical classroom environments equipped with technologies interacts with pedagogy adopted by teachers. Different pedagogy asks for different learning environment, and vice versa Radcliffe The results showed that the five factors questionnaire was a reliable and valid tool for evaluating smart classroom.
The survey results confirmed that configuration of Internet access and digital resource for each student in classroom were vital for improving learning experience as these were the basis for digital native conducting inquiry and collaborative learning by using digital resources. The results also confirmed that students did not perceived much smart learning even in tablet classrooms, which implicated that pedagogy fit was the key issue for the application of smart classroom.
Technology equipment plus advanced pedagogy could lead to the transformation of teaching and learning modes. This study was conducted with a survey research model. Although a survey methodology was appropriate to examine characteristics from a population, it is not as accurate as observing behavior and perception Archambault and Barnett The process could be stronger if qualitative data were gathered to validate the results of the survey Yurdakul et al.
The future study should be conducted by using the methods of classroom observation and interview in different kinds of classrooms, especially the tablet classroom, to interpret the phenomenons and produce concrete solutions. Possible future studies also include designing a smart classroom and carrying out instructions in the classroom, and then evaluate the effects of learning with technologies, and investigate the patterns of teaching activities and learning activities in smart classroom to match technology, teaching and learning space.
YJF conceived and designed the study. YJF performed the experiments and wrote the paper.
2. Virtual and augmented reality
HRH give suggestions for editing the paper. All authors read and approved the manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Smart Learning Environments December , Cite as. Evaluation of smart classroom from the perspective of infusing technology into pedagogy. Open Access.
The Emerging Pedagogy for 21st Century Learning
First Online: 25 September Introduction Since the late s, many governments increased their investments in educational technologies, with the assumption that use of technology in schools could enhance teaching and promote learning outcomes Huang et al. The framework and tools for evaluating smart classroom Few research focused on the evaluation of smart classroom.
Li et al. MacLeod et al.
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Yang and Huang developed classroom environment evaluation scale CEES evaluating both physical classroom environments and psychological classroom environments, from the 10 dimensions of showing, manageable, accessible, tracking, enhancement, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation and cooperation. Adapted from the 5 factors of physical environment from Yang and Huang and considering the the inventories by Li et al.
Table 1 Framework for evaluating smart classroom.
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Dimensions Annotation Resource The convenient level for accessing to the internet and sharing digital resources, etc. Environment The convenient level for the indicators of the physical environment, like temperature and air condition Enhancement The level of facilitation of learning and teaching by using digital devices Management The convenient level for conducting flexible pedagogies Presentation The convenient level for presenting content and sharing learning outcomes.
The SCEQ was used in a large scale survey on the status of smart classroom with 13, students from primary and middle schools in China. Table 2 Sample characteristics. Exploratory factor analysis by principal component analysis with varimax rotation showed that the 5 factors of resource, environment, enhancement, management and presentation accounted for Most students perceived that they could not get access to Internet or digital learning resources freely, and also the assistance from digital devices for learning.
Scale Mean S. Resource 2. In terms of the classroom types, students 6.